Bankshot 3-Act Revised

In my previous post, I presented Act I of a 3-Act geometry lesson that I called Bankshot. I also called out to the #MTBoS to support me by offering feedback of which I received two excellent comments that were rich in suggestions, particularly in the aspect of improving the student experience.

If you want to go back and look at the first draft and/or read the comments that got left, then feel free to check it out.

Now, all three of us agreed that the action begun and ended too quickly. Danny Whitaker (@nemoyatpeace) suggested that I slow the video down. In addition to agreeing with Danny’s suggestion, Dan Meyer (@ddmeyer) suggested that there was more I could do to set the situation up and make the clear what was going on before the I roll the film.

Danny also suggested that I cut the film before the ball bounces into the wall. Another interesting suggestion that Dan made was to include multiple attempts. I thought that those are both interesting suggestions.

You will see my attempts to respond to the feedback in this second draft of “Bankshot”. I start with a more direct set-up of the situation. I also added a second attempt from when I was filming to give the students something to think about. Now they have at least four guesses they could make. “Both hit target,” “both miss target,” “first hits, second misses,” or “first misses, second hits.” You will notice also that I slowed the playback down which cost us the sound. It’s possible that a bit of background music will be needed in a third draft, but that is something that we can talk about.

All right, #MTBoS, here is my second draft of “Bankshot.” I look forward to more feedback.

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Learning from Playing Around

These past two weeks have been an awesome time of learning for the students we’ve been working with, but I’ve also done a bit of learning myself.

I’d like to have my students love math and science and naturally be interested in it. But they’re kids. They would prefer to play. People get the most out of that which they put the most in to. If given the chance, students will put a ton into playing around.

These past two weeks I’ve been working with upper elementary-aged students. I normally teach high school students. I’m not sure if the age difference changes anything. The stuff they want to play with might be different, but not the desire to play.

And after 7 years of teaching math, there’s something appealing about a situation where students will be voluntary and enthusiastic participants.

Play Science 1

I have just spent two weeks watching students play with two activities. The first was an activity called “Table Timers” where they were challenged to design and construct an apparatus on a table top that reliably moved a marble down an inclined table in ten seconds. Second, The Helium Balloon Problem challenges students to keep a helium balloon rising, but to have it travel as slowly as possible upward. Not every group worked well and not every group achieved these goals, but the engagement level has been high. I suspect this is because they we allowed to play.

Here’s what caught my attention the most: In the midst of their play, the students demonstrated some authentic problem-solving techniques. They had to identify the major challenges to their goal, which they often did. They had to brainstorm possible ways to overcome the challenges, which usually took the form of raking through a tub of blocks or looking through the supply table. They discerned which seemed like the most realistic and then test. Following a test, they discussed what happened, why, and revised. And the students were often quite excited when they got the right answer (knowing themselves that it was right and not relying on me to tell them).

That’s a pretty good learning model. That’s something that I have a hard time getting my students to do with book work.

Play Science 2

So, the sharing, the idea-making, the consensus-building, the authentic assessment are all good things. Obviously I am not simply advocating letting the students play around all day. But perhaps by using play, we can improve engagement and the students seem to more naturally fall into a more authentic problem-solving mindset. When I consider helping them draw out the learning, some thoughts come to mind.

First, it seems like during the whole process of exploration, design, construction, testing, revising, and demonstrating, there needs to be an abundance of contents-specific vocabulary. The marble didn’t “bonk into that block.” That block “applied a force” to the marble. Students don’t “figure out how big the shape is.” The “find the area” or “circumference” or “volume.”

Second, students don’t seem naturally inclined to take data or to keep records. In the past two weeks, it seems that students are avid experimenters and do a pretty good job of verbally analyzing the problems if the plan didn’t work. Practically NONE of them documented anything on paper. No sketches, no data, no records of updates. This is an important part of the problem-solving process that would have to be established as a norm.

Third, the activities have to be tiered. Video games are great at this. The entry point tends to be quite low. The first couple of levels are pretty manageable and then the intensity and difficulty pick up. People get locked into video games through that model and people get unlocked quite quickly once the game has been beaten. Both Table Timers and The Helium Balloon Problem worked with this model. Then entry point was low for both activities and it was easy enough to begin to approach the goal, but perfecting the design and executing the plan took much more care. Then, once they hit ten seconds, we’d challenge them to add five seconds to their timer.

Fourth, I think that the groups need to be expected to summarize and present their work to each other and to field questions from the class. Class norms should allow for questioning of each other’s work and students can learn a lot about their own design, but also about the content when they know that they are going to have questions coming from their peers. Also, it would seem like this would encourage more thoughtful designs, too. Besides this, idea sharing gives the students an opportunity to look at other designs, integrate specific vocabulary into more regular use, and get the students comfortable with collaborating.

 

Play Science 3

I don’t think that playing around is the answer to everything, but I know that in my own experiences, it seems to be the forgotten learning model and if I’ve learned anything these past two weeks, it’s that an environment that produces enthusiastic student participation shouldn’t be ignored.

Composite Figures in Context: The Wedding Cake Problem

What you see below is the original post from 2013. Since that time, this problem has taken on some alternate forms. One alternative was suggested by Jeff in Michigan and appeared in a post in March of 2014. The other alteration I made myself in Desmos in May of 2015. Feel free to read on and consider checking out the many different ways there are to approach this interesting (and delicious) mathematical situation.

We’ve started our 3-D unit.

Once we get into the volume and surface area measures for 3-D figures, the textbook leads us to shapes called “composite figures” that look like this.

taken from Geometry, copyright Holt, Rhinehart, Winston 2007, Pg 684 #8

source: Geometry, copyright Holt, Rhinehart, Winston, 2007, Pg 684 #8

This can be a tricky image for student to try to work with, mostly because they’ve never seen anything that looks like that before. But they’ve seen composite figures. They are everywhere. But, removing the context can be enough to take this very applicable, contextual concept and make it abstract enough to be confusing.

In reality, composite figures are wonderfully applicable. (I say again, they are everywhere!) So, here’s my question: Why do we insist on giving them an abstract picture to start with? Why not start them with one of the many composite figures that will draw the students into a real context.

I present exhibit A: The Wedding Cake.

Photo Credit: Flickr user

Photo Credit: Flickr user “kimberlykv” – used under Creative Commons

Your basic wedding cake, like the one shown at the top is three cylinders of differing sizes stacked on top of each other. What I like about the Wedding Cake is that the measures of volume and surface area matter in real time and without too much more background than a bit of story-telling (which I love to do).

Now, let’s toss an additional cylinder into the mix.

This blog does not endorse Betty Crocker, General Mills, or any of their products.

Now, you’ve got yourself a math problem!

Question to the students: How much can the baker of the above cake expect to spend on the lemon frosting that is on the exterior of that cake?

… and see where they go with it.

Increasing Engagement Through Art

A half-hour of drawing might make the difference to whether or not the data table gets filled out...

A half-hour of drawing might make the difference to whether or not the data table gets filled out…

I have a teaching colleague to thank for this idea. He currently teaches all of our Algebra I students, mostly freshmen. We have noticed a struggle-disengagement cycles that is self-repeating and driven by inertia. The student begins to struggle, which leads to disengagement, which leads to more struggling, which leads to… you get the idea. However, my colleague created an art activity that might be a game-changer for some of these students.

It goes like this. First, create an image on a piece of graph paper. Whatever you want. Could be your name or a picture or whatever. But there are conditions. It must include at least 10 line segments. Endpoints must have integer coordinates. It must have one pair of parallel lines. It must have at least one pair of perpendicular lines. After the pictures were drawn and colored, then the students picked 10 line segments and found coordinates of the endpoints, slope, function rules in standard and slope-intercept form.

Doing all of those things ten times over is as good as a practice worksheet, except better! Better because, you activated the right side of the brain for those who need it (which is a healthy portion of our students). There is a greatly reduced temptation to cheat or shortcut because the products are unique (and the more competitive students will see to it that their picture isn’t copied). Plus, like a good billiards player, you are always thinking two shots ahead. By tossing in the parallel and perpendicular pieces, you are running the risk that the student might begin to make some conjectures about the look of lines and their slopes.

How much more Algebra is this student learning now?

How much more Algebra could this student be learning now?

Beyond Geometry (Help me please!)

A literary-minded student's contribution to my classroom decor

A literary-minded student’s contribution to my classroom decor

In my fifth year teaching high school geometry, an opportunity has come to me that seems interesting, challenging, and worthwhile. So, in addition to integrating the Common Core’s version of high school geometry into our school’s math program, the lot has fallen upon me to do the necessary research for (what could become) our school’s new AP Calculus class. Well, actually, I kind of requested the job because I need the hours for my masters program and I would be interested in teaching the class once it is planned.

Okay, so confession: I don’t have any idea what I’m looking at or looking for. I took calculus as a high school senior several (or more) years ago. I took Calc 1 at Lansing Community College and Calc 2 at Western Michigan University. I’d like to think that I could give the students a better experience than I had. In that mindset, I’ve spent the last two hours or so looking at different unit plans, textbooks, labs, and syllabi. I even put “the best calculus textbook in the English-speaking world” into a Bing search bar to see what came up. (Nothing useful, by the way.)

So, here’s where you can help.

I need advice. What are the best textbooks? What should I look for? What are my red flags?

I’m very inclined to project-based, or at least student-centered curricula. What resources are you familiar with that will support the students in an exploration of calculus instead of a year-long teacher presentation?

Can you provide links to awesome problems or labs?

All suggestions and recommendations is welcome. Even a word or two of advice would be welcome. Load up the comments. If it’s longer, andrew.shauver@gmail.com is the way to get ahold of me.

Thanks for everything!

Mathematical Creativity: Multiple Solutions to the Pencil Sharpener Problem

I enjoy watching students exploring a problem that forces them to come up with their own structure for solving it. Today, a group got a chance to mess around with The Pencil Sharpener Problem, which is a problem I posted a month or so ago. (I’ll leave you to read it if you are curious what the problem is.)

From my perspective, what makes this problem interesting for the students is the ease with which it is communicated and the complexity with which is it solved. It seems quite easy. The answer is fairly predictable, but the students quickly found out that if they were going to solve this problem accurately, they were going to need two things:

1. A way to organize their thoughts and,

2. a way to verify their answer.

As long as the solution process included those two things, the students ended up fairly successful in the process of this problem.

I submit to you four examples of student solution structures. They all look different, but they all have one thing in common: The students could tell you with absolute certainty what was on the page and that they were right. (I withheld judgment from the correctness, but I will say that their final answers were all pretty much the same.)

This one includes a bit of a floor plan

This one includes a bit of a floor plan

In this first one, shown above, this pair of students decided to draw a floor plan with each of the pencil sharpeners (and the bucket they were tossing their leftover pencil nubs). The solution process progressed from there.

Guessing and Checking

Guessing and Checking

These two students are classic minimalists. They worked to guess-and-check, which requires a bit more skill than it might seem. They needed to decided what number they were going to guess (sounds like an independent variable) and how to check their answer (sounds like a function producing a dependent variable). They weren’t using the vocabulary. It didn’t seem to be a problem for them.

Guessing and Checking

Guessing and Checking

These two were a little more formal with their guess-and-check process, and they were using the terms independent and dependent variable. For the record, the time was independent and the number of pencils sharpened was the dependent variable.

A graph of multiple equations (where the solution does not include finding an intersection point)

A graph of multiple equations (where the solution does not include finding a single intersection point)

These two struggled a bit to convince themselves that they were on the right track as they completed this graph. They were discussing the need for the graph to be accurate (essential), how to interpret the three sets of points (one set to represent each pencil sharpener). Eventually, the were able to find the spot on the graph when the numbers added up properly. The number along the x-axis represented the final time. (Once again, they didn’t call time the independent variable, but it looks so nice along the x-axis, doesn’t it?)

Each of these students would have likely looked at the others with confusion, yet their answers largely agreed. What it required for them to solve it wasn’t me, as teacher, telling them how. On the contrary, it required me, as facilitator, designing a problem they would engage with and then giving them the resources to make sense of the problem with each other.

The Art of Geometry: My students’ first tries at Kolams

ImageI recently turned to Indian Folk Art to help my students make sense of rotational symmetry. For some, it was a time for them to get to show-off their artistic abilities. For other this was a fantastic struggle for some as they built their understanding. ImageIt was awesome to see the different levels of understanding. First the students were able to recognize the definition and make sense of the written words. Then they were asked to recognize and interpret online images for symmetric properties. Finally, they were asked to create an original rotationally symmetric piece. ImageAnd while not all of the art work captured the essence of the art of India, much of it demonstrated that the students were truly building authentic understanding of a spatial reasoning concept.ImageBottom line: I just built my own understanding. I’ve been told for years how the deepest understanding comes from having the students CREATE. It was awesome to see the process and it seems to be working.Image